The Fateful Life of Harry Taylor: Murder on the Sparks Farm

B Co. Seventh Dist. p44-45

Alfred Sparks’s farm lies on the road which follows the ridge from Hereford. Here you can see it is to the West of Hereford close by the Schoolhouse where Alfred taught. Atlas of Baltimore County, Maryland. Seventh  District, G. M. Hopkins, Philadelphia, p44-45, 1877.

There were warnings. They knew the illegitimate child had slaughtered two dogs, perhaps when his employer had angered him, as would be the case in the 1898 murder. They knew he killed some calves of Micheal Armacost because they would not go into the stable. He had been hired after he had left the House of Refuge. The African-American community knew there was something in Harry Taylor and it was best to avoid him. Sarah Lee had lunch with Taylor and Morris two days before. And even then she could tell Taylor held alot of rage within. The lunch was completely silent.

At around seven in the morning on the 16th of June 1898, the men headed into the thick woods to fell and load timber to make ties for the nearby railroad. Despite the hour, Taylor cracked jokes and appeared ready for the long day. They were going to load the wagon and drive it North to a sawmill in Parkton from the farm of Alfred Sparks on Mt. Carmel Road near Evna Road. Lemuel Morris hired Harry or Henry Taylor, 22; George Wills, 19; and John Talbott, 14. And in the early morning light a load of logs waited for them. George and John hopped into the wagon and began grabbing logs from Lemuel and Harry.

The murder

Exact details differ of the murder. A log slipped and fell to the ground. The young boys called, “Look Out!” And Taylor took offense, yelling up at them. Morris tried to placate Taylor and ended up heightening the tension. Morris turned his back to continue with the job, when Taylor, in a fit of uncontrolled rage, grabbed an ax and cracked Morris’s skull with two blows, felling the older man.

OR “Taylor said to Morris, “You’re a fool,” and Morris replied that if he were not still, he would strike him a blow, and when Morris had bowed down to the log, Taylor had hit him with the ax.” (Der Deutsche Correspondent. [Baltimore, Md.], 26 Oct. 1898.)

OR “Mr. Morris remonstrated with Taylor for allowing the end of a log to fly up. Taylor made a surly reply, Mr. Morris then said in a jocular manner. / ‘Don’t fly off the handle so quick or I’ll take my fists to you.’ …he killed Mr. Morris in self-defense. He said that they quarreled and both grabbed for the ax, which lay between them.” (Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.)

OR “Morris, he held his fist under [Taylor’s] nose and seemed to have the intention of attacking him.” (Der Deutsche correspondent. [Baltimore, Md.], 18 June 1898.)

In any case after Morris fell, Talbott and Wills moved toward Taylor and may have struggled with him:

“…the two boys made a start to interfere, Taylor turned savagely on them and they ran. He then threw the axe at them, but failed to strike them. He then picked up the axe, and, saying “Well, I’ll finish this one any way,” returned to where Morris almost lifeless body was lying and dealt the prostrated man three more terrific blows with the back of the axe, crushing in the skull.” (The Democratic Advocate. [Westminster, Md.], 18 June 1898.)

“Talbott and Mill then grappled with the young murderer, who fought like a madman and succeeded in breaking away from them.” (Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.)

The boys ran to alert as many people as possible in Parkton, including Lemuel’s father Nicholas and the local doctor, Dr. A. R. Mitchell. The doctor later testified Morris lived some 15-20 minutes after he arrived. The doomed man lay unconscious and breathed out whatever he had left in him. One account reports that blood and brains stained the forest floor. A grand jury quickly held conference over the body and charged Taylor with the murder. After the inquest, Morris’s mother and brother arrived to kneel over him and plead for him to speak.

Taylor fled toward the nearby Pennsylvania border. He lived with his mother in Rayville not far from the border. Once the community found out about the murder they began hunting Taylor along the roads. Feelmeyer and Whittle arrived at the scene and set out in pursuit. Lemuel Carr saw Taylor on foot and, ignorant of the murder, gave him a ride in his wagon, which is where Constable Grant Hare, riding, overcame Taylor and pointed his pistol at the murderer. Taylor offered no further resistance but instead later pleaded for Hare to kill him instead of turning him over to the lynch mob. “Constable Hare says that when he arrived at Parkton with his prisoner he was surrounded by an angry crowd of men, who expressed bitter feeling against Taylor, and he therefore boarded the first train for Baltimore.” (Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.)

The trial

“The trial was before Judges Fowler and Burke. Taylor appeared unconcerned, even careless. He was neatly dressed in a dark coat and rough gray trousers. His brother was in the courtroom. He was represented by Emanuel W. Herman, with whom was associated Frank I. Duncan. State’s Attorney John S. Ensor, in his opening statement to the court, gave an outline of the crime. Mr. Duncan, for the defense, filed a plea of insanity, and on that theory the defense relied almost absolutely. […]

Taylor was convicted of second degree murder and sentenced to the penitentiary for 18 years.” (The Democratic advocate. [Westminster, Md.], 05 Nov. 1898.)

The life before and after

Born around August 1875, Henry’s father abandoned the family or the mother never knew the father. Illegitimacy tainted the young boy. To the farming community he was “weak and wayward temperament, morose and eccentric, without any softening influence of home life, he grew up moody, morbid, with an almost total lack of moral sensibility” (The Democratic Advocate. [Westminster, Md.], 05 Nov. 1898).  He moved in and out of charity houses. In 1880 Henry lives with the elderly Robert Eareckson and his wife Julia with the United Brethren preacher, J. T. Knapp. Able to read and write, perhaps the preacher taught him some. At his trial the Baltimore American describes him thus: “both in manner and appearance is a typical farm hand. When taken to jail he wore a large hickory hat, blue-checkered shirt, overalls, and clod-hopper’ shoes. He was very nervous and appeared to realize his position.”(Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.)

From the Penitentiary in Baltimore City, where he resided in 1900, he was moved to the State Hospital for the Insane. Despite the 18 year sentence, Taylor went on to live the rest of his life institutionalized. As late as 1940, Taylor resided at the Spring Grove State Hospital in Catonsville, Maryland.


Lemuel left four children to be cared for by his father and mother-in-law. “One year ago his wife died [from an operation] and shortly afterwards his home was swept away by fire. One month ago his youngest child died. He was well-known and very popular among his neighbors.” (Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.)



Baltimore American. 17 June 1898.

The Democratic Advocate. (Westminster, Md.), 18 June 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <>

The Democratic Advocate. (Westminster, Md.), 05 Nov. 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <>

Der Deutsche Correspondent. (Baltimore, Md.), 17 June 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <> translation by Google Translate.

Der Deutsche Correspondent. (Baltimore, Md.), 18 June 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <> translation by Google Translate.

Der Deutsche Correspondent. (Baltimore, Md.), 26 Oct. 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <> translation by Google Translate.


Genealogy Rabbit Hole #2- Sparks

The ancestry for the Baltimore and Anne Arundel County Sparks is hazy and tenuous. While many online trees give an ancestry that leads to the Fareham, Hampshire, England Sparks beginning with Richard Sparks (1658-1740) and then Thomas Sparks (1615-1693), I find that this Sparks Family Group probably came from Charles County and maybe St. Mary’s County first and were in Maryland much earlier, making it unlikely that Richard Sparks (c. 1658) is a direct ancestor. There is a consistent name repetition that might indicate this Family Group did come from Fareham but from an earlier ancestor.

I have few direct connections; however, there appears enough geographical proximity to call this a Family Group. My thinking is basically as wealthy landowners purchased and speculated in land in neighboring counties, the Sparks family migrated with these developments, working as tenant farmers. The family migrated from Charles County to Prince George to Anne Arundel and here the family splits: part going to upper Baltimore County and the other going to Pittsylvania County, Virginia.

The evidence I rely on is the repetition of names, especially the landholding class such as NEALE, COURT, BATCHELOR, and YATES.

As of now, the earliest record we have places the Sparks on the banks of the Wicomico in Charles County. The earliest record of a Sparks is in William Sparks’s court case of 1678. The one Sparks who we have in St. Mary’s County is Richard Sparks. I am not sure this Sparks is part of the Family Group. The first Sparks I am definitely placing in this Family Group is William Sparks

RICHARD SPARKS, born before 1658; died after 1681 Maryland

On 26 July 1673, “Then came Richard Sparkes of St. Mary’s County and proved Rights for 50 acres for his time of service performed in this province.”  Richard then assigned those rights to EDWARD CLARKE.

  • ST. MARY’S COUNTY (Court Records) Richard Sparkes  Book 17, pg 477.  26 July 1673.; see also Sparks, Paul E. “Immigrants Names Sparks Who Came to Maryland before 1675.”  Sparks Family Association. 18:4 Whole No. 72 (December 1970): pgs 1362-1363. Web.

When Maryland was first founded in 1634, those intrepid enough to go received 100 acres of land.  This was reduced to 50 acres by 1641.  Rich men gave indentured servants 50 acres of land at the end of their service.  Servants in turn paid for their transportation by signing over this 50 acres to their master.  It appears this is what the court record shows.  In addition to the land, a master gave his newly freed servant an ox, gun, two hoes and clothing.  Terms of service lasted from 2 to 6 years.

In an Administration record dated 10 May 1681, the estate of John Dabridgcourt paid Richard an unknown amount.  And this is the last we hear of Richard.

  • MARYLAND PREROGATIVE COURT (Inventories and Accounts) John Dabridgecourt, St. Mary’s County. 7B, 74 A # 4840. 10 May 1681. Others listed include: “John Steventon paid to Mr, Gardner, Magdalen Pean, Richard Sparks, Stephen Gough paid to Mr. Gardner, Richard Gardner, Thomas Dante.”
    • However tenuous, there is evidence through the reoccurrence names in the records. For instance PHILIP LYNES was indebted to EDWARD CLARK. JOHN COURT and JAMES NEALE act as jurors in William’s 1678 case.  Both John Court (probably a son) and James Neale would later lease land to a Thomas Sparkes.

CHARLES COUNTY 1657, 1674-1682

WILLIAM SPARKES, born before 1653; death after 1682 Maryland

A William Sparks lives in the Wicomico area of Charles County around the same time as Richard:

Upon peticon made to the Court by Wm Sparke a lame man It was ordred that Jno Lemaire receive him into his Custody and provided that the sd Lemaire doe make a pfect cure of his legg that then he bee pd two thousand poundes of tob out of the County Levye & in  case the sd Sparke doe remaine Sound one whole yeare & tht Jno Lemaire prsent him So to the Court then the sd Lemaire to be pd one thousand poundes of tob more the next Yeare, and if it Shall Soe happen that the sd Sparke Should dye wthin halfe a yeare that then the sd Lemaire be pd one thousand poundes of tob

  • CHARLES COUNTY (Court Proceedings) William Sparke 1671-1674. Liber E p. 180. 10 June 1674.; see Proceedings of the County Court of Charles County: 1666 – 1674. vol 60. ed. J. Hall Pleasants. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1943. 563. Web. It is uncertain if this is the same William, but Lemaire did have land on the Wicomico close to JOHN COURTS.

A William Sparkes sued PHILIP LYNES on 15 October 1678. The case reached an initial hearing on 14 February 1679. Philip had forced William, on 20 August 1678, from 150 acres in Charles County before his lease was expired.  William Harbert acted as the muscle and was initially named in the suit. Philip Lynes claimed part of the 150 acres of land was part of his tracts “Stumpdale” and “Watsons Land.”[4]

  • These tracts had been surveyed for a THOMAS BATCHELOR, of Cedar Poynt.  A court case involving Batchelor and an Edward Parks occurred almost 20 years earlier.  From what I can make of it, Batchelor had hired a servant from Edward Parks and, it was argued, agreed to pay Parks regardless of the health of the servant. In the transcription there is a Mr Sparks. I now think this is a scribal error. Mister was an honorific title and not used for servants. However, an examination of the original is needed.

Parks v.Batchelor- Deposit inter mr Parks & mr Batchelor: Richard Tarling aged twenty three years or thereabts Sworne and Examined upon his Oath Sayeth Concerning a Servant that mr Sparks hyred to mr Batchelor for the time of three weeks he did him Little or no worke, by reason of his nasty diseases the flux and the Scurvey, And farther this Deponent Sayth that mr Sparks Came to mr Batchelors house one day, and mr Batchelor desired the Said mr Sparks to take Some Course with him and gett him away for he had rather give him Six hundred pounds of Tobacco, then be bound to tend on him, by the reason he was So very nasty, And farther this Depont Sayth that it hindered most of this Deponents time and mr Batchelors to tend on him, and farther this Depont Sayeth not.               Signum Richard X Tarling

Proceedings of the Provincial Court of Maryland: vol 41 1658-1662. ed. Bernard Christian Steiner. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1922. 9. Web.; see also ST. MARY’S PROVINCIAL COURT (Proceedings) Liber B, No. 3. pg 370. 30 December 1657.

Getting back to William’s case, the court adjourned until after the land was surveyed, 11 May 1679. This was no easy feat finding an obscure boundary mark as the land dipped into swamp and morass. The tract was called Hardy’s Purchase and situated on the North side of the Potomac River.  It bordered property owned by John Lee, Richard Watson, and Thomas Batchelor. Batchelor’s Creek ran through a march, which spilled into a beaver dam on the property. William leased it on 1 August 1678 for a term of 3 years. William asked for 50 pounds sterling in damages as a consequence of being ejected. Robert Ridgely acted as attorney for William and Christopher Rousby acted for Philip Lynes. The suit was settled in William’s favor:

    Wm Sparkes Lessee of Henry Hardy


Philip Lynes

the Comand was given to the Sheriffe of Charles County that whereas at a Provinciall Court held at the Citty of St Maryes Eighteenth Day of ffebruary Anno Doni 168o before the Justices of the same Court in an action of Ejectment then and there Depending between William Sparkes Lessee of Henry Hardy plt and Philip Lynes def Itt was Considered by Our Said Justices that the Said William Sparkes Lessee as aforesaid Recover against the said Philip Lynes his terme Yett to come and unexpired of and in One messuage of One hundred and fifty Acres of Land lyeing in Charles County aforesaid Called Hardyes Purchase lately in the tenure & occupation of Thomas Peirsey decd wch the Said Henry Hardy to him the said Sparkes Demised for a terme wch is not yet past & likewise the Sume of Nine thousand One hundred sixty and Seaven pounds of tobacco for his Costs of suite by him the said William Sparkes in that behalfe Layd out and Expended Itt was therefore comanded the said Sheriffe that of the goods and Chattles of the Said Philip Lynes If they should be found in his baliwick he should Cause to be made the aforesaid Sume of Nine thousand One hundred Sixty and seaven pounds of tobacco: and When he had the same Soe made as aforesaid or any Part thereof the same in his Custody to keepe Soe that he Should have the Same here the Six and twentyeth day of September in the Seaventh yeare of the Dominion of the Right honoble Charles Lord Baltemore &c Annocp Doni 1682 to render unto the Said William Sparkes On wch Said Six & Twentyeth day of September in the yeare aforesaid Collonel William Chandler Sheriffe of the County aforesaid made returne of the writ afore said that by vertue thereof he hath made of the goods and Chattles of the Said Philip Lynes the Sume of Nine thousand One hundred Sixty and Seaven pounds of tobacco.

  • Proceedings of the Provincial Court of Maryland: vol 69 1679-1680/1 68, 136-137, 242-244, and 402-409; vol 70 1681-1683 Court Series. ed. Elizabeth Merritt. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1964. 291.; see also ST. MARY’S PROVINCIAL COURT (Proceedings) W. C. pgs. 63, 122-123, 216-218, 369-375, 633. 26 September 1682.


THOMAS SPARKS, born before 1682; died 1702 Charles County, Maryland

On 2 December 1702, William Sparkes acted as adminstrator for a Thomas Sparkes in St. Mary’s County. William placed a 100 pound bond and Thomas Blacman and Cornelius Dunivan acted as Security.

  • MARYLAND PREROGATIVE COURT (Testament Proceedings) Administration Bonds Exhibited. vol 19A, pg 129.St. Mary’s County,  2 December 1702. For some connection see John Bould Administration 1696, Cornelius Dunivan’s wife administers and payment is made to Anthony Neale, the landlord of Thomas Sparkes.

WILLIAM SPARKS, born before 1702; died after 1722 Charles County, Maryland

There is a Charles County Court Record for a William Sparkes that according to Maryland State Archives is now lost. The only record I have of it is in the land record index for Charles County. As best that I can make out the other party in the case is a Roach.

  • CHARLES COUNTY COURT. William Sparkes. vol. K 2 pg. 355. August 1722. The reference can be found here: CHARLES COUNTY COURT (Land Records, Index) , p. 0420, MSA_CE83_1.


This is where many trees take up the Family Group. The exact relationships are still tenuous. For instance in 1738 a land record shows a Thomas Sparks Senior, meaning there must have been another Thomas of adult age that we have not accounted for in Charles County at the time. Perhaps the inventory recorded in 1727 for Thomas Sparks refers to someone outside this Family Group.

THOMAS SPARKS, born about 1689

ELIZABETH —, born about 1691; died after 1729. Married 1707 Maryland

  1.    Thomas Sparks, 1711-1789
  2.    Matthew Sparks, born about 1715; died 1786

Matthew migrated to Pittsylvania, Virginia. Married Eleanor Brooks. Matthew had a son named Josiah.

In late 1748, Matthew Sparks purchased 68 acres, called “Bedfordshire Carrier” from William Fields for 3000 pounds of tobacco.  Matthew sold this land to Evan Jones 2500 pounds of tobacco.

In 1760, Matthew Sparks purchased the 109 acres of “Smith’s Neglect” for 5 shillings from Benjamin Beall.  In 1777, Matthew sold the property to Richard Beall, son of Ninian, Sr., for 100 pounds.

In 1763, “Mathew Sparkes brought Before me the subscriber a Small Black Stallion Colt about Ten hand high has a Small Stare in his forehead he Complains that he Trespasses upon his Inclosure.”

PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY COURT (Land Records) Book EE, pg 631. 13 December 1748.; Book RR, pg 67. 27 August 1760.; Book TT, pg 113. 25 November 1763.; Book CC2, pg 337. 15 March 1777.; FREDERICK COUNTY COURT (Land Records) Deed Book F, pg 1180. 4 November 1760. Witnesses for these deeds included: B. Young, L. Young, Morda Jacobs, Robert Tyler, Josa. Beall, Chrisr. Lowndes

In a will written on 1 April 1725, JAMES NEALE of Wolleston Manor in Charles County gives to his son Benjamin Neale 500 acres of land leased to Davies, Anthony Smith, John Castles, and Thomas Sparkes.

  • CHARLES COUNTY PROBATES (Wills) James Neale. vol 3 pg 217. 11 October 1727.; CHARLES COUNTY PROBATES (Inventory) James Neale. vol. 1717-1735 pg. 238. 31 October 1727.

A ROBERT YATES witnessed the inventory to the estate.  In documents related to Benjamin the tract of land is called either “Gill’s Tract” or “Giles Land,” and borders the Wicomico River.  It appears, if the connections are correct, that the Sparks family resided here, before 1725, and the next land record we have for them is in 1738 moving into Prince George’s County.

Probate Records for Anne Arundel show a Thomas Sparks died intestate in 1727.  An inventory was conducted on 20 April 1727.  Leonard Hollyday of Prince George’s County administered the estate.  The inventory states there are “no relations” in the province (women and children were excluded from this listing). This could refer to a transported prisoner to Anne Arundel named Thomas Spark -Paul E. Sparks writes in The Sparks Association that between 1716 and 1717 a group of political inmates were transported to Anne Arundel, and their number included one “Thomas Spark.” On arrival he was purchased by Philip Dowell. I am leaning towards the Thomas Sparks who died in Anne Arundel in 1727 not being part of the direct line if he is related at all.

  • “Sparks Family of Pittsylvania County, Virginia.” compiled by William Perry Johnson. Sparks Family Association. Whole No. 11 pgs 79-85. Web.; ANNE ARUNDEL (Inventories) Thomas Sparks. vol 12 pg 264. 1727.
  • Sparks, Paul E. “Thomas Sparks, Political Exile.” Sparks Family Association. 6:1 Whole No. 24a (December 1958): pgs 335-336. Web.

THOMAS SPARKS, born about 1711 Maryland; died 1789 in Pittsylvania, Virginia

ELIZABETH —, born before 1714

  1.   Josiah Sparks 1729-1765
  2.  Matthew Sparks, born around 1745; died after 1777

Matthew married Margery. Migrated to Pittsylvania, Virginia.  In 1775, Matthew purchased from James Beck 100 acres, called Pleasant Spring Enlarged for  50 pounds.  Matthew sold this tract to John Hamilton, Sr., for 80 pounds in 1777.

PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY COURT (Land Records) Book CC,. pg 136. 2 February 1775.; Book CC2, pg 396. 5 April 1777.; Witnesses to these deeds include: Jos. Beall, Chris. Lowndes,  Chris. Lowndes, Mary Henderson.

In 1730, Thomas Sparks of Charles County leased “that plantation he now lives on for the term of 15 years,” from BENJAMIN NEALE.  Thomas paid annually 700 pounds of tobacco, 2 barrels of corn, 4 hens or capons, and 4 days work.  Thomas could use the surrounding timber but could not sell it, and if Neale were to find fruit trees, Thomas was to plant and tend them.  Any violation, on either side, resulted in a fine of 1000 pounds of tobacco. R. YATES and John Howard witnessed the deed.

  • CHARLES COUNTY COURT (Land Records) M 2, p. 0237, MSA_CE82_25. 29 September 1730.

In the 27 March 1730, Thomas is listed under the “debts” column in the inventory records for a Samuel Ferson owing 3 schillings.  He was not listed in the “desperate” column.

  • CHARLES COUNTY PROBATES (Inventory) Samuel Ferson. Inventories 1717-1735, pg 198.  27 March 1730.

In 1738, Thomas Sparks Senior, planter, signed a 21 year lease with JOHN COURTS of Charles County, Maryland, Gentleman, for 250 acres of land lying in Prince George’s County near Rock Creek and known by the name of “Clean Drinking.”  ROBERT YATES and John B[r]iscoe witnessed the deed.

  • PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY COURT (Land Records) T, p. 0682, MSA_CE65_10. 24 October 1738.

In the lease Thomas was to plant 150 apple trees and leave them in “good order” once the lease was expired.  Thomas was to have the first year rent free, but after pay 800 pounds of tobacco yearly. “Clean Drinking” lay near the first falls of Potomac River on Rock Creek.

  • In 1740, a lease from Charles Carroll, Esquire,  to Thomas, a planter from Prince George’s County, states Thomas was to pay 600 pounds of tobacco every March for twenty-one years delivered to the Eastern Branch of the Potomac, and not “Suffer more hands to work or till the demised premises than himself his wife and Children and in case his Children [are] uncapable to work then only to take in one able hand,” perhaps meaning Carroll did not want slave labor on the tract.  The land was called “Cloven Couse,” contained a 100 acres, and bordered Samuel Beall’s land.  Thomas was also required to improve this land with 100 apple trees.[14]  Daniel Carroll and Samuel Beall, Sr. witnessed the deed.
    • PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY COURT (Land Records) Y, p. 0197, MSA_CE65_11. 25 June 1740 .

Thomas began to buy land in 1748 beginning with a plot of 162 acres called “Owings Range” in Anne Arundel from John White of Prince George’s County.  The purchase required 1200 pounds of tobacco and 3..7 pounds sterling. John Brice and Vachel Denton witnessed.

  • ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY COURT (Land Records) RB 3, p. 0115, MSA_CE76_20. 30 November 1748.

In 1751, as executrix of Jacob Wood’s estate, Jane Wood settled an account with Thomas Sparks for 6 pounds 14 shillings and 6 pence.[16]

  • FREDERICK COUNTY (Administration Accounts) Jacob Wood vol 1 pg 12. 7 October 1751.

In 1752, Thomas purchased “Taylor’s Lott,” “Milford,” and “Cockey’s Addition.”  The first two parcels totaled 300 acres; “Cockey’s” contained 130 acres.  Thomas purchased the lots from William Woodward, a Goldsmith of London, Mary Holmes of Newington Butts, late Mary Woodward of Newington Butts, Benjamin Baron and Elizabeth, Cornelius Kehown and Sarah for 52 pounds.  These trustees purchased the land from Amos Garrett who purchased it from John Wood.  The deed was witnessed by John Moffatt and Philemon Young.

  • ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY COURT (Land Records) RB 3, p. 0624, MSA_CE76_20. 10 March 1752.

In 1753, Thomas sold the 130 acres of “Cockey’s Addition” lying on the north side of the Maggotty(Magothy) River for 20 pounds to John Brice.  Benjamin Beall and Clark Rockhold witnessed the deed.

  • ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY COURT (Land Records) RB 3, p. 0641, MSA_CE76_20. 22 November 1753.

On 24 January 1755, Thomas sold “Owings Range” to Bazil Barry for 42 pounds and 6 shillings.  The land had received its original patent in 1696 to Richard Owing.  On this land two creek branches came together, and John Mash established a mill at their confluence.

  • ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY COURT (Land Records) BB 1, p. 0021, MSA_CE76_21.  24 January 1755.

On 29 July 1755, near the head of the north side of the  Maggotty(Magothy) River, Thomas purchased 100 acres for 16 pounds from George Conoway.  The land bordered the plots purchased in 1752 and was near Muddy Run or Bailey’s Branch.  Thomas, I presume, for a short time ran the “Maggoty Mill called Milford.”

In 1756, Thomas sold 50 acres of this lot named “Milford” and part of a tract called “Tailor’s Lott” to a James Norman for 9 pounds.  On the same day, he sold to Jacob Allwell for 20 pounds 150 acres of the same lots.  Recorded in this record are the following landmarks: “Carved Rocks” which is by the Magothy on the north side, Ketchenars Cove, a valley is mentioned as well.  Benjamin Beall, James Norman and Jacob Allwell witnessed the deeds.

  • ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY COURT (Land Records) BB 1, p. 0164; BB 1, p. 0168, MSA_CE76_21. 27 March 1756.

It is believed that a few years after Thomas moved with his son, Josiah to upper Baltimore County. Josiah stayed in Baltimore, while Thomas and Matthew moved to Virginia.

Genealogy Rabbit Hole #1- McComas Family

The following is a genealogical post explaining connections I make for the ancestors of Jackson and Larkin McComas of the Hampstead and Manchester area of Carroll County Maryland.  The connections are speculative but appear to me to have the greatest probability. The evidence is geographical proximity and some land records. The structure of this post is first a synopsis of evidence in italics followed by brief annotations of sources and finally any counter-arguments or qualifications are mentioned in a bullet-point. This post would not be possible without the work of Mike Pierce and his “Map Maker” site.

First Connection:

Geographical proximity and name repetition- Larkin died in Manchester in 1843, Jackson lived in the 6th district Baltimore and died in Hampstead 1895. Both Larkin and Jackson would have a first born son named James.

Jackson is brother to Larkin and son to James McComas who was enumerated in the 1820 Census as being in 5th District Baltimore: 1 male under 10 (1810-1820); 1 male between 16-18 (1812-1814); 2 males 16-26 (1814-1794); 1 male 45 and up (at least 1775); 2 females 16-26 (1794-1814); 3 people in agriculture

This James is likely the same James listed in the debts of Shadrack Hurst for 3.75 dollars. Dated Dec. 14 1825. Also mentioned are David Kidd, Moses Kidd, Jacob Hurst, James B. Davis, Thomas Kell, and Phillip Keller. BALTIMORE COUNTY PROBATES. (Inventory) Shadrack Hurst. vol. 38. pg. 171. 7 November 1829. James B Davis is likely the same that lived in Hampstead in 1850. The Hurst family owned property in the 6th District.

Also of note is that Phillip KELLER, according to online trees and I believe a family bible record, was married to Elizabeth MCCOMBET (born c. 1800). In my quick searching I have not found others of this last name, McCombet, leading me to believe this is a phonetic spelling maybe of McComas. If so, Elizabeth may be one of James’s daughters.

  • As far as I am aware, only one other McComas family was active in the same area, that of Amos McComas (who intermarried with the Hurst family). He is likely the son of Aquila (3rd Generation), who was the son of Alexander (2nd Generation). There does not appear to be any likely candidates in this line – (James Preston McComas stayed in Harford County).

Second Connection:

Geographical proximity and corroborating census data- the ages, genders, and number match between the James of the 5th district in the 1820 census, and that of James McComas in the Mine Run Hundred of the 1810 census.

James McComas enumerated in the Mine Run Hundred District, likely on the Harford border near Joshua Kidd’s property “Timber Ridge”, 1 male under 10 (1800-1810), 1 male 10-16 (1794-1800), 1 male 16-26 (1784-1794), 1 male 26-45 (1765-1784), 1 female 10-16 (1794-1800), 1 female 16-26 (1784-1794), 1 female 26-45 (1765-1784), 1 female at least 45 (before 1765) – (James’s wife died before 1820 maybe; Jackson was born around 1815)

James McComas witnessed the will of Joshua Kidd on 13 January 1812, BALTIMORE COUNTY PROBATES. (Wills) Joshua Kidd. vol. 9. pg. 6 November 1813. This Joshua lived in the 2nd District south of My Lady’s Manor.

Larkin owed 7.25 to William Orrick from an open account dated 1828 to 1830. William Orrick was a physician in the 2nd District. BALTIMORE COUNTY PROBATES (Inventory) William Orrick. vol. 48 pg 306. 28 December 1838.

James owed 11 shillings and 2 pence to William Slade of Baltimore County (likely 2nd District) BALTIMORE COUNTY PROBATES (Inventory) William Slade. vol 17 pg 512. 27 June 1795.

  • A John Marche McComas would reside near My Lady’s Manor, but this was later in the 19th century. Online source give his father as Nicholas Day McComas who resided in the 4th District Harford County.

Third Connection:

Geographical proximity, Court Record, and seems to be the likeliest candidate. To further trace this James McComas I rely on the probability that he migrated from Harford County and that it was likely from the North part of the county where several McComas families had property in the Deer Creek area, specifically Federal Hill. The strongest evidence for this is the court record. Also, if you consider other families followed a similar migration path (see John Marche McComas and Amos McComas above for example) without stronger evidence this seems the likeliest option.

HARFORD COUNTY COURT. James McComas of Daniel. case number 76.06(18). 12 April 1808. Historical Society of Harford County. Bel Air, Maryland. This document establishes James McComas of Daniel’s residence in Baltimore county. The Court case involved Samuel Bradford’s lessee William McComas vs. Nicholas D. McComas, Frederick Amoss, and Alexander McComas. In the summons’s letterhead Harford County is crossed out and “Baltimore County” written in, meaning James McComas of Daniel resides in Baltimore County at least by 1808. This document also supports the “fourth connection,” that his father is Daniel.

  • There is a James Jr born to Colonel James whose birth and approximate death match the best dates I have for the 5th District James. However, it appears this James stayed in the Abingdon area of Harford and became a Justice of the Peace. There are online trees listing a marriage to Sarah Howard with children whose number and age do not match the 5th District family.

Fourth Connection:

Likeliest Candidate, above Court Record and Land Records. In this area I have found one James who may be the same of the 5th district. In several land records he is listed as James Junior, or James the Younger. His father was, however, a Daniel as a comparison of the land records shows. The James Junior who purchases 85 acres of “Hills and Valleys” is the same James of Daniel who later mortgages the 85 acres of “Hills and Valleys.” (This is confused by the alternating references to “Hills and Valleys” or “Hills and Dales” – “Hills and Valleys” is on the Federal Hill road. There is a “Hills and Dales” tract further West but James and Daniel never owned that tract. This is corroborated by the subsequent sale, after the land is seized, to Thomas Kell.)

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) JLG E, p. 0319, MSA_CE113_5. 21 February     1783.  On 21 February 1783, Daniel sold to his son, James, “Hills and Valleys” for 250 pounds. On the same day Daniel sold to James “two negro boys viz. Negro Samuel, aged fourteen years Negro William aged ten years also two horse hine, one Sorrel mare, the other a Brown horse, one feather bed, bed stead, two sheets, one boulster, two pillows, one blanket, and coverlid.” In exchange James gave Daniel the 160 acres of “Addition to Hills and Valleys.”

On 22 September 1785, purchased the lease for 247 acres of Reserve lands for 59 pounds 2 shillings and 4 pence. The greater portion of this land would become “Double Purchase.”

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) JLG K, pg 408. MSA CE 113-10. 22 August     1789. On 22 August 1789, “James McComass the Younger of Harford County planter” mortgaged the 85 acres of “Hills and Valleys” to Robert Smith for 35 pounds. James needed to pay the interest from 5 May 1786 before 22 August 1791.

HARFORD COUNTY (Land Records) James McComas of Daniel. “Federal Hill,” Unpatented Certificate 152. 6 June 1792. Witnesses: Jacob Bradenbaugh and James Tyrrell.  In 1792, James attempted to patent the 53.5 acres of “Federal Hill.” This tract stood on the road leading from “John Coxes Mill to Baltimore Town.” On 10 December 1805 James signed over his title and interest to Thomas Ayers.

HARFORD COUNTY (Land Records) John Cox. “Timonium,” Patented Certificate 817; Certificate IC L 495; Patent IC O 542. 6 June 1794.  Perhaps since John McComas of Daniel needed to transfer title to 4 acres this may have been their father Daniel’s dwelling plantation if not in “Ward’s Purchase.” The activity regarding the land may indicate Daniel died around 1794.

On 6 October 1794, James had 30 acres of “Timonium” surveyed for a patent application. On this same day a John McComas assigned his title of 4 acres, bearing the date of 26 March 1794, to James. The property line began on the “North East of a Run descending into Deer Creek called Daniel McComas’s Spring Branch.” “Timonium” also bordered “the Waggon Road leading past John Coxes Mill on Little Creek.” The title was transferred on 2 October 1795 to John Cox.

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) JLG L, p. 0448, MSA_CE113_11. 22 June 1795. Witnesses: George Gallion and John Cox Jr.  On 22 June 1795, James mortgaged to John Cox for 16 pounds 15 shillings “one waggon and the Gears thereto belonging, one Roan or Grey Mare seven years old, one Horse Colt a bright Bay, one year old (the two colts came of the aforesaid two Mares.” James had till September to pay it off with interest.

HARFORD COUNTY (Land Records) John Cox. “Double Purchase,” Patented Certificate 236; Certificate IC N pg 346;Patent IC L pg 529. 21 February 1799.  On 4 December 1795 James had 187 acres of “Double Purchase” surveyed. “Hills and Valleys” was incorporated into this patent. Before the land was patented on 21 February 1799, the deed was transferred to John Cox.

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) HD T, p. 209. MSA CE 113-19. 19 October 1807. Witnesses: Nicholas D. McComas and Thomas W. Ayres. On 19 October 1807:

whereas at a county court begun and held for Harford County on the fourth tuesday of November in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven a certain Daniel McComas by a judgment of the same court recovered against James McComas of Daniel late of Harford County yeoman the debt and costs in the said writ named whereof the said James is convict and that whereas the said Daniel McComas is since dead and James Madden is appointed administrator of the said Daniel McComas and that whereas since to wit at August term seventeen hundred and ninety-nine it was considered that the said James Madden administrator as aforesaid should have execution against the said James McComas for the debt.

On 11 February 1800, the sheriff Robert Amos was commanded to seize James McComas’s property including “one tract of leased land called Hill and Dales.” James Madden later placed a bid of 83 pounds 19 shillings and 80 pence.

After losing his property, James either worked on farms for wages or tenant-farmed. I think this because there does not appear to be any subsequent deeds in Harford or Baltimore for James or his descendants. It would make sense, too, in that neither Jackson or Larkin owned land. Between October 1807 and April 1808 James moved his family into Baltimore County.

Fifth Connection

Geographical proximity, land records and likeliest candidate- James McComas’s father, Daniel McComas of the Federal Hill area is the same who received “Ward’s Purchase” from the 2nd Generation Daniel McComas, who resided in Gresham’s College near Bush River.

BALTIMORE COUNTY COURT (Land Records) TB E, p. 0414, MSA_CE66_22. 15 April 1747. On 15 April 1747, Daniel McComas’s father first leased 190 acres of “Ward’s Purchase” for 15 pounds. In his will he would give Daniel the lease.

HARFORD COUNTY (Land Records) “Davises Lott” Patented Certificate 215. 11 August 1789; Richard Hope “Friendship Enlarged” Patented Certificate 285. 17 January 1787. On 9 March 1761, Daniel leased the 68.5 acres of “Daniel’s Lookout.” Daniel no longer leased it by January 1787.

BALTIMORE COUNTY PROBATES (Wills) Daniel McComas. Book 3 pg 19. 1765 : son James receives Greshams College; son Daniel “The land whereon my son Daniel McComas now Dwells called Wards purchase being in his Lordships reserve my will is that the land be equally divided between my two sons Daniel and John”

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) JLG E, p. 0319, MSA_CE113_5. 21 February 1783.  In 1765, Daniel leased 85 acres of “Hills and Valleys” from John Long.

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) AL 1, p. 0454, MSA_CE113_1. 10 April 1769.  In 1769 Daniel transferred 95 acres of “Ward’s Purchase” to his brother William for 100 pounds.

HARFORD COUNTY COURT (Land Records) AL 1, p. 0456, MSA_CE113_1. 1 December 1774.  On 1 December 1774 it appears that Daniel Jr.’s brother John transferred his 95 acres to William as well for 100 pounds.

After Daniel sold to James “Hills and Valleys” it appears that Daniel and James had a falling out. In 1787, Daniel won a court case against James.

  • One other possibility that I am looking at is that William and James had different fathers named Daniel. A William (of 2nd Generation John) purchased “Collings First Shift” which is very close to “Federal Hill.” He also Proprietary leased “McComas Desire” which also borders “Federal Hill.” This William had a son Daniel born c. 1752 which could be the father of James although the birth dates are getting a little tight- James was born c. 1765-1775, and “Hills and Valleys” was first leased in 1765 by Daniel McComas. “Collings First Shift” was transferred to Samuel Jenkins by at least May of 1787 when he had it surveyed as part of a new tract “Spittle Craft.” Same with “McComas Desire” which became “Orrs Survey” in 1787.


Daniel then had one son: James.  John of Daniel I believe is the brother and not a son. Daniel likely died around 1794, but at least between 1785 and 1800. James then lost his land in Harford County and migrated first to Baltimore County near My Lady’s Manor and county border with Harford, and then to 5th District Baltimore near the area that would become the Carroll County border. James may have had 6 children (1820 census).  I believe Larkin, Jackson, and Elizabeth were 3 of his children.

The Slaves of My Lady’s Manor: The Sparks Family.


The following post attempts to trace the lives of former slaves owned by Josiah Sparks (1752).  Most remain anonymous.  Subsequent to this effort is a cursory examination of slavery in the area known as My Lady’s Manor of upper Baltimore County, Maryland. In 1850 there were approximately 1,968 slaves in the 2nd District of Baltimore County.

The Fugate House

Benjamin R. Fischler wrote a report, An Investigation into the History of the Fugate House, A Stone Ruin on the Marshall Farm along Troyer Road in Baltimore County, Maryland.  The Fugate House stood on Josiah Sparks’s property.  The house has previously been called the Fugate Slave House or the Sparks Slave House.  However, the Fugate family never housed slaves there.  The Sparks may have housed slaves there but there is no definitive proof.  Fischler’s research has revealed that if slaves were housed there it was most likely when a neighboring family, the Holmes, purchased land nearby and may have rented the house as seasonal slave quarters.  Fischler’s report was published by the Manor Conservancy.


Josiah Sparks Jr., a wealthy farmer in My Lady’s Manor, died in 1846. In his will he divides his household. Among his possession are nine slaves:

“My coulored woman Marenda. I leave to go free when I am no more. My black man Joshua, I leave to go free when I am no more. I give and bequeath unto my daughter Ruthy Pierce one black girl till she is 25 years of age and then to go free named Nelly to serve her till she is 25 years old and then to go free. I give and bequeath to Ellen Sparks wife of Frances Sparks one black girl named Sarah Ann to serve her till she is 25 years old and then to go free. I give and bequeath unto Aaron my son one black boy named James and one black girl named Elisabeth, to serve him till they are 25 years old and then they are to go free. I give and bequeath unto my daughter Sarah Maze three black boys by name Nelson, John and Thomas to serve her till she is 25 years old and then they are to go free, the black boy Nelson to be taken by my son Frances when he arrives at 18 years of age and he is to pay the said Sarah Maze twenty dollars per year till he is 25 years old.” (Josiah Sparks’s Will 92)

In the Maryland Archives are Certificates of Freedom for Joshua and Marenda.  It should be noted that although I assume the Joshua in the will is the Joshua Johnson in the 1850 census based on name, age, and proximity to the Sparks family this is not a definitive link.  Many of the connections rely on circumstantial evidence.

Joshua Johnson (1816) freed 1846:


and Marenda (1814) freed 1846:

DSC02325 Marenda (1814) freed 1846

  • Marenda may possibly be enumerated in the household of Charles B. Gorsuch in the 1850 census for District 1 Baltimore County as Marinda Shaw (1810).


Josiah wrote his will in November of 1843,when he was about 90 years old.  Joshua Johnson had land surveyed in August 1844, and purchased it in 1845 (BCLR: AWB 365: pg 516).  Josiah died in January of 1846; Joshua reported the land purchase in May of 1846. Initially this presents an obstacle to linking Joshua of the will to the Joshua Johnson of My Lady’s Manor.  But according to Ben Fischler, while illegal, sale of land to slaves did happen when the white parties involved agreed to the sale (Personal Email 25 May 2015).  Joshua may have waited to report the land purchase to avoid any prying.  Moving forward on the presumption that they are the same man the deed reveals important details about the relationship between the two men.  If Joshua eventually learned that he was to be manumitted at the death of Josiah, he had started making preparations and looking for a plot of land for his family.  The years between 1843 and 1846 must have tried Joshua’s patience for Josiah’s death.

The deed also shows that Joshua was a wage laborer to some extent.  Wage labor for slaves was more common in Maryland as it was used as a deterrent against the free side of the Pennsylvania border (Grivno 24-25).  Josiah either hired Joshua out and gave Joshua a small percentage, or Joshua found his own work, maybe as a cobbler, and gave Josiah the larger share of the payment.  In any case, Joshua managed to save 64 dollars for the price of the eight acres, and whatever the cost of surveying conducted by John B. Henderson.  Such an amount must have been saved over the course of several years.

Joshua’s family fortunately possessed some stability; perhaps evidence of an attempt to reunite broken families.

  • In the 1850 Census Joshua’s children are George age 10 (1840), Rachel age 5 (1845), Hesta age 2 (1848).  His wife is Pelitia or Penelope (1816).  Elizabeth Mirn[sp] or Moore age 88 (1762) also lives with the family
    • Listed close by is Zebedee Annis age 52 (1798). He is a shoe maker, and Joshua would be listed as a shoemaker in 1860.  There may be a familial link or it may simply be neighbors sharing a trade.
    • With Zebedee are Henrietta age 52 (1798), James age 14 (1836), Mary Williams age 11 (1849).  Zebedee was a free man since at least 1840 where he is enumerated with one male 10-24, two male children under ten, a female 36-54(Henrietta), a female 24-35, and a female child under 10.  In 1860, Besides his wife, James (1837) and Jane (1845) live with him.  In 1870, the last year Zebedee is enumerated, Henrietta still lives with him, a Rachel Shively (1848) lives with him with children: Charles P (1858), Annie (1862), Frederick D (1865) and Mary E (1868).  This Rachel could be Joshua’s daughter Rachel (1845) strengthening a familial tie to Zebedee and the Joshua/Pelitia household.
  • In 1860 the following are enumerated with Joshua- Age 43 (1817)–Listed as Mulatto–Shoe Maker:
    • Pelitia– Age 44 (1816), James age 23 (1837), Elizabeth age 22 (1838), Alfred age 20 (1840), Joshua age 16 (1844), Jane age 15 (1845), Hennetta age 13 (1847), Rosana age 9 (1851), Nicholas age 8 (1852), Eliza age 8 (1854), Mary age 8 months (Jan 1860).
    • A George Jonston is listed next who is Joshua’s father, age 78 (1782), listed as a day laborer
      • with George are Rachel age 60 (1800), James age 11 (1849), Mary age 9 (1851)
  • In the 1870 census Joshua is listed as a farmer next to the household of Mathew Sparks (1817).
    • with him are Penelope (1815), Joshua T (1845), Nicholas T (1853), Eliza E (1854), Mary A (1860)


Nelson Gray (1831) (Sarah, Francis) freed 1856

Nelson Gray’s family appears to have suffered the tragic vagaries of death and collapse.

  • Nelson Gray (1831) In 1860 he is listed as a free man working for Francis.
  • The 1870 census shows Nelson, living in Baltimore City, married to Emily and with two children: Joshua(1862) and Emily(1863) His occupation is a porter.
  • In the directories there is an Emma or alternatively Eleanor Gray at 11 Edward as a laundress/seamstress with Nelson Gray.
  • In 1873 they moved to 91 Sterling: in 1875 170 n. Spring. Between 1875 and 1880, Emily dies.
  • In 1880, Nelson is a widowed “Huckster” living as a boarder with no relations.
  • The 1881 is the last directory record which mentions Nelson. He would have been around 50.

The following are the names of the enslaved with their approximate birth date, who they were willed to in the Sparks family, and their approximate emancipation date. Sarah Ann Smith (1835)–(Francis) freed 1860–In 1860 she is working for Francis as a free woman.  James (1827)–(Aaron) freed 1852– Elizabeth (1831) –(Aaron) freed 1856 John (1837-1842) –(Sarah Maze or Mays) freed 1862+ Thomas (1837-1842)–(Sarah Maze or Mays) freed 1862+ Nelly (1834)- (Ruth Pierce)–freed 1859

  • In 1830 Josiah is enumerated with 8 slaves: one male under 10, two between 10 and 23: three females under 10, one female between 10 and 23, one female between 24 and 35.
  • In 1840 one male under 10[John/Thomas?], two males 10-24[James,Nelson], one female under 10[Sarah], two 10-24[Elizabeth,Nelly], and one 26 under 54[Marenda?].



Laban Sparks (1782): nephew to Josiah Sparks through Thomas (1758)

  • In 1830 one slave was enumerated
    • 1 female 10-23 years of age
  • On 13 April 1839 Laban ran an advertisement in the Baltimore Sun for an escaped slave by the name of John Howard (1816).


  • In 1840 three Freed persons were enumerated
    • 1 male under 10 years of age
    • 1 male 10-23 years of age
    • 1 female 24-35 years of age
  • In 1850 Laban is enumerated with two slaves:
    • Male (1837) and a Male (1837)
  • In 1860 five slaves were enumerated
    • Male (1840), Female (1840), Male (1845), Male (1848), Male (1860)
  • In 1870 Shadrack Sparks, Laban’s son, is enumerated with:
    • Charles Howard (1842) and Miranda Howard (1845)

Aaron Sparks, a grandson to Josiah through Thomas

Enumerated with two slaves in 1850

  • Male (1820)
  • Female (1845) who, at only five years of age, is marked as a fugitive.

Francis Sparks

Again from Schweninger’s compilation we find this petition: “Francis Sparks vs. Elizabeth Given petition 27 August 1862 Apprentice was ‘incorigible, and of ill behavior, to the evil example of other children belonging to your petitioner, and your Petitioner is therefore desirous of being rid of her’; asked that indentures be canceled” (BALTIMORE COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS, MSA SC 4239-18-83).


I am obviously indebted to the Legacy of Slavery Project of the Maryland Archives and Dr. Loren Schweninger.   I am very grateful to Ben Fischler for contacting me and sharing his research.  I recommend finding a copy of his published report.


BALTIMORE COUNTY COURT (Land Records) AWB 365, p. 0516, MSA_CE66_415. Joshua Johnson. 8 December 1845.

BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Certificates of Freedom) 1844-1849.  Joshua. MSA C3085-4-44. Annapolis, MD. 26 June 1847.

BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Certificates of Freedom) 1844-1849. Marenda. C3085-4-45. Annapolis, MD. 26 June 1847.

BALTIMORE COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Petitions and Orders) MSA T1206-449. MSA SC 4239-18-83. Annapolis, MD.

BALTIMORE COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Petitions and Orders). MSA T1206-449. MSA SC 4239-18-85.  Annapolis, MD.

BALTIMORE COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Petitions and Orders) MSA T1206-449. MSA SC 4239-18-90. Annapolis, MD.

BALTIMORE COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS. MSA CM188-26. Annapolis, MD. William Curtis. 26 May 1863.

Baltimore Sun. 16 April 1839. Legacy of Slavery Project

Baltimore Sun. 13 June 1840. Legacy of Slavery Project

Baltimore Sun. 2 June 1855. Legacy of Slavery Project

Grivno, Max. “There Slavery Cannot Dwell”: Agriculture and Labor in Northern Maryland, 1790-1860. Dissertation. College Park, Md: University of Maryland, 2007. Print. (Later published as Gleanings of Freedom: Free and Slave Labor along the Mason-Dixon Line, 1790-1860)

Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser. 1782 October 22. Legacy of Slavery Project.

Oakland Farm House. Maryland Historical Trust Inventory. Site No. BA-120. MSA. Annapolis, MD

Pearce, John B. Accommodations Docket. 18 May 1850. Legacy of Slavery Project.

Perdue, John. Accommodations Docket. 20 September 1849. Legacy of Slavery Project.

Schweninger, Loren. compiler. “Race, Slavery, and Free Blacks: Petitions to Maryland.” Web. <;

Simms, Maria. MSA C2064 Baltimore City & County Jail (Runaway Docket), 1832 – 1836, 2/72/4/19. 21 April 1834. Legacy of Slavery Project.

Slade, Thomas. Baltimore County Wills 1838-1840 vol 17. pg 142. MSA. Annapolis, MD. 22 November 1838.

Sparks, Josiah. Baltimore County Wills 1845-1847. MSA CM188-21. vol 21. pgs 91-93. MSA. Annapolis, MD. 19 January 1846.

United States Census, 1850, Baltimore county, part of, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; NARA microfilm publication M432. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1850 ,” Baltimore county, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; NARA microfilm publication M432, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

United States Census, 1860, Election Dist No 10, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; NARA microfilm publication M653, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

United States Census, 1870, Maryland, United States; NARA microfilm publication M593. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

Waters, Henry. MSA C2065-1 Baltimore City Jail (Runaway Docket), 1854 – 1864, 2/72/4/21. 1851 March 13. Legacy of Slavery Project.

Williams, Peter. MSA C 2064-2 Baltimore City and County Jail (Runaway Docket), 1836 – 18502/72/4/20. 15 April 1837. Legacy of Slavery Project.